In Game of Thrones, the world consists of several continents and regions. As the name hints, Westeros is the most western continent covering thousands of miles. It also contains the northern regions which held the White Walkers thanks to The Wall. Westeros was originally inhabited by the Children of the Forest. Eventually, they were invaded by the First Men, who came from the other continent Essos. According to author George R.R. Martin, Westeros is about the size of South America & contains the Seven Kingdoms.
The Seven Kingdoms is a political union consisting of the Kingdoms of the North, Mountain and Vale, Isles and Rivers, Rock, Stormlands, Reach, and Dorne. When looking at a map, the continent of Westeros is bordered to the west by the Sunset Sea, South by the Summer Sea, and East by both the Narrow and Shivering Sea.
The various regions of Westeros are administrative regions ruled by a Great House. The Great Houses are noble houses which are constantly fighting to have a member sit on the Iron Throne. Starting from the South upwards, the lowest region is Dorne. Initially, not a member of the various Kingdoms, it joined upon a marriage alliance 200 years after the other Kingdoms united. Dorne contains the only desert in Westeros, located in its central area while the population stays in the coasts. The Great House of Martell, which ruled this region, became extinct as that family became killed.
West of Dorne is a region called The Reach. Considered the most fertile part of Westeros, it is home to various crops and has the largest population. It is also considered the richest region in Westeros. The Great House of Tyrell ruled The Reach but their ruling bloodline were all killed. To their east was the region of The Stormlands. This region has frequent storms from the Narrow Sea on their eastern coast and 2/3 of the forested area in Westeros are located in the Stormlands. The House Baratheon was the ruling Great House before they became legally extinct.
North of the Stormlands is The Crownlands. Unlike other regions, the Crownlands has a unique set up of being ruled directly by the Iron Throne instead of being ruled through a Great House. The largest city in Westeros, King’s Landing, is located on the east coast of the Crownlands. This is also the capital city of the Seven Kingdoms and the location of the Iron Throne.
On the far left of Crownlands is the Westerlands. This region has reserves of metals such as gold and silver. Their metal forging with materials such as iron also allow them to have a well-equipped army. The Westerlands have various mountains which help provide protection from invasion compared to the other regions. The Great House to rule them is House Lannister.
In the middle of Westeros is The Riverlands, which contains the tributaries called the Green Fork, Red Fork, and Blue Fork but has little natural borders. Because this region is in the middle of Westeros, it’s constantly caught in between conflicts. However, it’s also very fertile able to recover at a quick pace from damage. The Great House ruling this region is House Tully, which is no longer in power.
The Vale of Arryn is the northeast region under the North region. Unlike the Westerlands, the Vale doesn’t have valuable resources, yet they have fertile lands comparable to the Riverlands. The land in this region is difficult with mountains and valleys with various small communities and tribes live there. The Great House that rules this region is House Arryn.
The most northern region of the Seven Kingdoms is properly called The North. It’s the largest region, essentially the size of the other regions combined. One of the interesting aspects of The North is how many old traditions from The First Men are still practiced. It borders The Wall and because of this, The North released the land south of the Wall from their authority. This land is called The Gift and managed directly by the Night’s Watch which guards The Wall. The Great House that rules The North is House Stark.